What is a Rule of Thumb? From Dictionary. Defined by its depth to length ratio, the depth will usually have to go beyond 10 feet deep in order for the foundation to truly be a deep foundation. In short and distilled, deep foundations are structural elements which transfer structural foundation loads to a deeper, more competent soil layer or to bedrock.
But why use deep foundations? Otherwise, if the structure experiences excessive foundation settlement, the result will typically be damage to the structure and building finishes, and a law suit.
Now that we understand what the basic objective is settlement controlthe decision to use deep foundations will typically involve one or more of these factors:.Beam Slab & Columb Size Thumb Rule
What are the most common deep foundation types? There are many types of deep foundations. For the sake of brevity, we will concentrate on the most popular or common types of deep foundations and their typical allowable compressive load capacity range.
How deep foundation should be for a wall 2.3m high
Capacities can be higher, but these are common, typical values to guide initial decisions. Remember the Rule of Thumb theme. What are Deep Foundations? Now that we understand what the basic objective is settlement controlthe decision to use deep foundations will typically involve one or more of these factors: Heavy Foundation Loads - Parking decks, high rise buildings, water tanks, etc.
Strict Settlement Tolerance - Precision machining or manufacturing equipment, sensitive building finishes, etc.The general rule for deck footings built on a slope are based on average soil conditions. So, if you have unstable soil conditions all bets are off. You will want to speak to an authority in your area.
Usually a Geo-technical engineer or someone with lots of experience with building decks will know exactly what to do. The Seven Foot Rule is a great rule of thumb to be safe. It's simple to remember and for most conditions quite conservative. However, if you are on a mountainside with tons of rain in the winter months, speak to someone who is professionally qualified. Otherwise you are flirting with disaster.
As you can see in the photo, any footings on a sloped grade like this should be safe if the widest point of the footing is no closer than seven feet from the slope when you project a horizontal line from the point of the underside of the footing. All slopes have to be examined and understood before any building commences. There are places in the St. Lawrence Valley, and Alaska where quick clay or leda clay, as it is sometimes called, is present.
This is potentially a very unstable soil at the best of times. A water laden slope would be at even higher risk of literally washing away under the right conditions. Alternatively, in mountainous terrain soil can be a mix of sedimentary layers or alluvial rock or sand. This kind of slope is also at risk of sliding if its saturation point is reached. The seven-foot rule may NOT apply in any of these situations. The topic of foundations and how to properly support a deck over a sloped grade demands local building knowledge that you must acquire before you build or plan any light structure.
On special locations like slopes or hillsides, take the time to contact your local building officials to find out what the soil is and what the common building practices are. Obviously, a hillside deck can give you dramatic views and benefits but don't forget to consider safety in the equation. Different Styles of Footings on Flat Ground.
Why Sign Up? Read Archives. My wife is a stroke victim, and she wants this deck to be as easy as possible for her to walk out on. She would like it to be as high as possible, with. Replacing my southeast MI year-old deck, was hoping just to replace the surface boards but many of the posts were set too deep and rotted at ground.
Read More. I am building a ground level deck max 24 of the ground. It is L shaped and will have 2 long beams The beams will be 3-ply PT SP 2 2x12's. Concrete Volumes. Beam Spans.Good luck. Regards Shaine.Optimum packages 2020
Hi, this would depend on the ground conditions, if it is clay, recomended 1. Sandy soils are not very good for building on, gravel, rock or chalk are excellent so no need to go as deep. If in doubt your local council building control officer will be aware of local conditions and should give good advice for free over the phone.
If you are digging close to the side of your house be aware that you dont undermine the house foundations. The foundation should go down to solid clay, which could be 18" down, or 6' down, you never know until you start digging!
So a 3m wall would have foundations down to clay and 1m wide, with the wall built centrally to the foundation. There is no set depth,as with any foundation excavation should be to a depth to a level which has a firm base free from either root growth or made up ground. Ask a tradesman. Like Liked 7. Ask a new question.
How worried should I be about the timber joists and flooring in a new extension touching the wall below the dpc?Reading Time: 5 minutes. Fence post depth, size, and anchoring systems can make or break your fence line.
Despite what some people believe, making a long-lasting fence is not always as simple as sinking a post in the ground and moving on to the next post.
GUIDING RULES TO DECIDE DEPTH OF SOIL EXPLORATION
There are a few great tricks you should know before you start making holes with your post hole digger. Picking the right post for the job is just as critical as setting your fence post depth correctly; possibly even more so.Ch376 example code
Cedar poles are a great way to hang fence wire. Depending on your needs, you could investigate the use of fiberglass fence post rods and steel t-posts if your application permits. Economics will likely play a big role in your decision making. The corner posts, posts stationed at rises and valleys as well as posts that your gates hang on are under much more stress. Compared to your interstitial posts that simply support your fencing from flopping or drooping, these posts need to be more substantial.
For fence posts charged with important tasks like these, bigger is better. These can be found at your local big box store for a reasonable cost, and are widely available. In a pinch, you could select, cut and shape a tree from your property to use as a post, but that could result in premature replacement because of relatively quick rotting.
Additionally, this method takes time, tools and effort you may not have. Ever notice that telephone poles are thicker at the bottom? This is the natural shape of the trees they make them from, but the tapered shape also helps keep them seated in the face of frost heaving. Posts that are improperly buried can work their way out of the ground, but if we sink our posts with the fat end down, the tapered shape will actually help keep the post from rising over the years of frost-thaw cycling.
Cedar poles have this shape too, so be sure to bury them correctly with the thicker end down. Frost heaving occurs when the water in the soil freezes and expands. The pressure caused by this expansion forces soil upward and anything within it, including your posts.1993 mazda mx6 wiring diagram diagram base website wiring
When posts are set correctly, the tapered shape makes it harder for them to be pushed out. Think of it like a watermelon seed between your thumb and pointer finger.The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation. It refers to an easily learned and easily applied procedure or standard, based on practical experience rather than theory.
This usage of the phrase can be traced back to the seventeenth century and has been associated with various trades where quantities were measured by comparison to the width or length of a thumb. A modern folk etymology holds that the phrase is derived from the maximum width of a stick allowed for wife-beating under English law, but no such law ever existed. This belief might have originated in a rumored statement by eighteenth-century judge Sir Francis Buller that a man may beat his wife with a stick no wider than his thumb.
The rumor produced numerous jokes and satirical cartoons at Buller's expense, but there is no record that he made such a statement.Panipat shooting in kota
English jurist Sir William Blackstone wrote in his Commentaries on the Laws of England of an "old law" that once allowed "moderate" beatings by husbands, but he did not mention thumbs or any specific implements. Wife-beating has been officially outlawed for centuries in England and the United States, but continued in practice; several nineteenth-century American court rulings referred to an "ancient doctrine" that the judges believed had allowed husbands to physically punish their wives using implements no thicker than their thumbs.
The phrase rule of thumb first became associated with domestic abuse in the s, after which the spurious legal definition was cited as factual in a number of law journals, and the U. Commission on Civil Rights published a report on domestic abuse titled "Under the Rule of Thumb" in In English, rule of thumb refers to an approximate method for doing something, based on practical experience rather than theory.
Historically, the width of the thumb, or "thumb's breadth", was used as the equivalent of an inch in the cloth trade; similar expressions existed in Latin and French as well. He says that "Ladies often measure yard lengths by their thumb.Missing nysc camp
Indeed, the expression 'sixteen nails make a yard' seems to point to the thumb-nail as a standard" and that "Countrymen always measure by their thumb". A modern folk etymology  relates the phrase to domestic violence via an alleged rule under English law which permitted wife-beating provided that the implement used was a rod or stick no thicker than a man's thumb.
However, a rule of thumb permitting wife-beating was never codified in law. English jurist William Blackstone wrote in the late s in his Commentaries on the Laws of England that, by an "old law", a husband had formerly been justified in using "moderate correction" against his wife but was barred from inflicting serious violence; Blackstone did not mention either thumbs or sticks.
Prosser wrote that there was "probably no truth to the legend" that a husband was allowed to beat his wife "with a stick no thicker than his thumb".Best asio driver
The association between the thumb and implements of domestic violence can be traced towhen English judge Sir Francis Buller was ridiculed for purportedly stating that a husband could beat his wife, provided that he used a stick no wider than his thumb. In the following century, several court rulings in the United States referred to a supposed common-law doctrine which the judges believed had once allowed wife-beating with an implement smaller than a thumb.
An court ruling in Mississippi stated that a man was entitled to enforce "domestic discipline" by striking his wife with a whip or stick no wider than the judge's thumb. In a later case in North Carolina State v. Rhodes, the defendant was found to have struck his wife "with a switch about the size of this fingers"; the judge found the man not guilty due to the switch being smaller than a thumb.
Nor is it true that a husband has a right to whip his wife. And if he had, it is not easily seen how the thumb is the standard of size for the instrument which he may use, as some of the old authorities have said [If concrete is not being used to build the footing, as is common for drystacked stone walls and very short walls, the footing can simply consist of about 6 inches of compacted base material like angular, sharp-edged gravel.
Top this with 1 inch of coarse sand or small gravel before constructing the wall proper. Retention, or retaining, walls provide a practical means to make a difficult slope manageable and hold up some amount of soil and vegetation while lending landscape interest. Thoroughly planned and ably performed wall construction will help to ensure the retaining wall's stability. One key aspect of retaining wall construction is preparing a solid footing, or foundation. The footing is usually made of poured concrete but in some situations homeowners may instead opt to simply use tamped earth or a gravel base.
Check local government ordinances. Often, retaining wall specifications are regulated. Walls planned to be more than 3 or 4 feet above ground level are commonly subject to these ordinances while smaller walls are exempt. Determine the planned wall's height and width. The footing dimensions will largely be determined by the size of the wall.
A poured concrete footing for concrete, block or brick walls should be at least twice as wide as the planned wall. The footing should be at least as thick vertically as the wall's planned width.
Take the frostline into account. The bottom of the footing should extend below the frostline to prevent damage caused by frost heave. Plan to bury some portion of the first layer or two of block or brick to ensure wall stability.
The Oregon State University Extension Service recommends burying the bottom row 1 inch for every 8 inches of wall height. Angela Ryczkowski is a professional writer who has served as a greenhouse manager and certified wildland firefighter.
She holds a Bachelor of Arts in urban and regional studies. Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. Tip If concrete is not being used to build the footing, as is common for drystacked stone walls and very short walls, the footing can simply consist of about 6 inches of compacted base material like angular, sharp-edged gravel. A well-planned footing should provide lasting support for the retaining wall.The object of site exploration is to provide reliable, specific and detailed information about the soil and ground water condition of the site which may be required for a safe and economic design and execution of the engineering work.
In other words, the depth at which soil does not contribute settlement of foundation. This depth is termed as significant depth. The following rules Table-1 can be used as a guide to decide the depth of soil exploration to commence the exploration work. One-half the bottom width of earth dams. Twice the height from stream bed to crest for concrete dams, for dams less than 30 m high. One metre where little cut or fill is required.
Geotechnical-Material Engineer. To know more about me just visit AboutMe. Thanks for providing this rule of thumb but my concern that how we shall calculate the zone of influence if you have formula so pl mail. Thanks for your precise summary. The thumb rules table given above is really helpful. My request it to prepare excel sheets for computation of SBC of soil from c-f soilfrom SPT values and also from settlement of foundation.
Proper Fence Post Depth to Build Strong Fences
If you have developed pl mail to me. My concern is to know the approximate depth of exploration for the reconstruction of an existing bridge. Your email address will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email.
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